Late Blight Global Challenge
In-situ Conservation Challenges
Value Chain for Small Farmers and Culinary Innovations
|Workshop Session I: Late Blight Global Challenge
Chair: Ivette Acuña – Researcher, Plant pathologist | National Institute of Agricultural Research (INIA Chile)
Co-chair: Jorge Andrade-Piedra – Epidemiologist of biotic constraints | International Potato Center
Wednesday 30 May – 08:20 – 11:10 hrs
Late blight is the main biological constraint for potato production worldwide, especially in developing countries. In this workshop, we will present the latest fi ndings in pathogen population and disease management. Experiences on regional late blight networks (such as EuroBlight and LatinBlight) will be presented and links among them will be discussed to identify key challenges on research and development to fi ght this disease. In addition, considering that Phytophthora infestans was originated in America and co-evolved with potato and other Solanaceae, this workshop will be an opportunity to present and discuss the current situation of the pathogen and disease management in Latin-American.
The Euroblight approach to pathogen monitoring to tackle the global challenge of potato late blight management
David EL Cooke1, Jens G Hansen2, Poul Lassen2, Alison K, Lees1, Geert JT Kessel3
1The James Hutton Institute, Invergowrie, Dundee, DD2 5DA, UK
2Department of Agroecology, Aarhus University, Foulum, Denmark
3Bio-interactions and Plant Health, Plant Research International, 6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands
Plant pathogen populations evolve in response to selection pressures imposed by our cropping systems, management practices and other factors such as the weather. Populations of the late blight pathogen, Phytophthora infestans, have a history of dramatic and rapid change that has had serious impacts on potato and tomato production on a global scale. In Europe, the Euroblight consortium has been tracking such changing populations for several years using standardised genetic markers and a reference database to allow comparisons on national and international scales. Our surveys of late blight infected crops by many collaborators (commercial and academic) from 2013-2017 have generated almost 7000 geo-tagged and genotyped samples from across Europe. The data indicates a mixture of population structures; some areas are dominated by a handful of key clonal lineages whereas other areas to the north and east of Europe are more genetically diverse (see mapping interface at www.euroblight.net). The population is dynamic, as indicated by the widespread increase of the EU_13_A2 clone from 2005 to 2008 and, in the last 2 years two new clones (EU_37_A2 and EU_36_A2) that are becoming established. These changes in the P. infestans population continue to challenge Europe’s IPM strategies on sustainable use of plant protection products. The Euroblight approach to collecting and sharing data is increasingly important beyond Europe. The goal is a common interface across potato growing regions of the world bringing with it a shared approach to these disease management challenges on a global scale.
Best Practices to manage potato late blight
Huub Schepers1, Bert Evenhuis1 & Geert Kessel2
1Wageningen University & Research, Edelhertweg 1, 8200 AK Lelystad, the Netherlands.
2Wageningen University & Research, Droevendaalsesteeg 1, 6708 PB Wageningen, the Netherlands.
The European Union has published a Directive (2009/128/EC) establishing a framework for Community action to achieve the sustainable use of pesticides by reducing the risks and impacts of pesticide use on human health and the environment and promoting the use of Integrated Pest Management. This involves an integrated approach to the prevention and/or suppression of organisms harmful to plants through the use of all available information, tools and methods. Eight important principles are described in this Directive which must be considered when setting-up Integrated Pest Management.
Phytophthora infestans is the most important pathogen in potato cultivation and liable for Integrated Pest Management. EuroBlight, a European network of scientists, advisors and representatives from agrochemical and potato breeding companies meets every 2nd year (www.euroblight.net) to coordinate and discuss late blight research. The EuroBlight network identified 11 Best Practices that reduce the development of late blight. The four Best Practices that significantly reduce the impact of pesticides will be presented. 1: Reducing the primary inoculum sources of late blight by practices that minimize the effects of dumps, infected seed potatoes, volunteers and soil borne inoculum. 2: Using varietal resistance to reduce the dependency of pesticides against late blight. 3: Fungicide choice and spray timing must match with disease risk, weather conditions and growth stage of the crop for maximum efficacy. 4: Decision Support Systems integrate all relevant information regarding the pathogen, the crop, the weather conditions and the fungicide characteristics to recommend on spray timing and product choice.
Genetic population structure of Phytophthora spp. causing late blight on potato and tree tomato crops in central and southern Colombia
Catalina Chaves1, Maria Camila Rodriguez1, Mayra Parra1, Natalia Guatyazán1, Maria Fernanda Mideros1, María Florencia Lucca2 y Silvia Restrepo1
1 Department of Biological Sciences, Universidad de Los Andes, Bogotá, Colombia
2 Potato Research Group, National Agricultural Technology Institute (INTA), Balcarce Argentina
E-mail: Silvia Restrepo: email@example.com
In Colombia, late blight (LB) is considered one of the most limiting diseases on potato and tomato production. In addition, the pathogen has been associated with large outbreaks on semi-domesticated plants such as tree tomato (Solanum betaceum) and other Solanaceous plants. Recently, a new Phytophthora species, P. betacei, was described infecting tree tomato crops in Southern Colombia. The aim of our studies were to describe the prevalence of LB disease in tree tomato crops and to characterize the Phytophthora isolates obtained from tree tomato and potato crops. SSR markers showed a significant population structure between populations of Phytophthora isolated from potato and tree tomato crops confirming that they belong to different species. In the case of the P. infestans isolates, all belonging to the clonal lineage EC-1, a total of 128 genotypes were detected with high levels of diversity in all localities. Analysis of molecular variance attributed most of the variation to differences within host genotypes than among them, thus suggesting that host cultivars do not structure the populations of the pathogen. Furthermore, the lack of structure according to host cultivar was confirmed by all the analyses, including Bayesian clustering analysis, suggesting that there are no significant barriers to gene flow for P. infestans among potato cultivars. According to geographical origin, the populations of P. infestans were also not structured and most of the variation among the isolates was attributed to differences within localities. These data provide comprehensive information for developing an appropriate management strategy against LB disease in Colombia.
Late blight management in developing countries
Jorge Andrade-Piedra1, Hannele Lindquist-Kreuze1, Willmer Perez1, Soledad Gamboa1, Manuel Gastelo1, Arturo Taipe2, Claudio Velasco2, Anne Njoroge3, Peter Kromann2
1International Potato Center (CIP), P.O. Box 1558, Lima, Peru
2CIP, P.O. Box 1721 1977, Quito, Ecuador
3CIP, P.O. Box 25171-00603, Nairobi, Kenya
We describe the strategy that the International Potato Center is applying to support farmers to manage potato late blight in developing countries. Clones with genetic resistance are the cornerstone of this strategy and are distributed to countries where late blight is the main biotic constrain for potato production. Pathogen population studies provide information on the genetic makeup of the pathogen that has direct effect on disease management, such as mating type and fungicide resistance. We illustrate this by providing examples from Peru and Sub Saharan Africa. Information about the pathogen and the host is then integrated with weather information using a decision support system adapted for low-scale farmers to help them to decide which fungicide spray and when. We describe the validation process to adapt this DSS to local conditions and new studies that are being conducted to evaluate its impact and its readiness to be disseminated. Training to farmers on the basics of late blight (symptoms, causal agent, effect of genetic resistance, fungicide use, etc.) is achieved with the support of training materials and methodologies that had been rigorously tested. We conclude by providing perspectives on disease management in developing countries, including the use of machine learning algorithms for disease diagnostic and disease management.
Implementation of early warning systems for Late Blight in Latin America
Ivette Acuña1, Florencia Lucca2, Jorge Andrade3, Wilmer Pérez3 and Rodrigo Bravo1.
1.Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (Institute of Agricultural Research), INIA Chile.
Late blight is the most important Solanaceae crop disease in Latin America, causing productive losses and affecting food security. A group of researchers have constituted the Tizon Latino network (https://tizonlatino.wordpress.com/), with the objective to share knowledge and protocols about the pathogen, the disease and its management, to achieve a sustainable control. Early warning systems are an excellent alternative as a decision support system (DSS) for integrated pest management, allowing a more efficient use of fungicides. These systems use different information and grade of complexity, according to the decisions makers. Some of them do not require technology like Hand-held DSS (HH-DSS) developed by the International Potato Center (CIP) to be use by small stakeholders in the Andes, it is based in farmer observation of the weather and crop management, demonstrating similar performance than Simcast. Also, there are slightly sophisticated systems, but easy to use by farmers, for example, Late blight DSS in Chile, available since 2007, utilizes weather data to do the warning, information is delivery to the farmers through a web page, SMS and e-mail. A survey shows that 42% of the farmers applied fungicide based on DSS information, using 50% less spray compared to a schedule application. In Argentina, an impact study about use DSS, shows both 33% monetary saving and 26% fungicide spray reduction, in potato production using DSS. Warning systems are useful tools to develop integrated pest management, but the most important and fundamental is considering what and how the information is delivery to the final users, it need to be simple and easy to understand.
|Workshop Session J: In-situ Conservation Challenges
Chair: Severin Polreich – Associate Scientist, in situ conservation and monitoring of potato diversity | International Potato Center
Co-chair: Stef De Haan – Agrobiodiversity & Food System’s Reseacher | International Center for Tropical Agriculture
Wednesday 30 May – 08:20 – 11:10 hrs
Sub-Session 1: On-farn Conservation of Cultivated Potato Diversity
Potato landraces remain an essential component of Andean production and food systems. Ecological and social change abounds; yet Andean farming systems have remained surprisingly resilient and smallholder producers continue to manage high levels of diversity as part of their livelihood strategies, thereby providing important ecosystem services to humanity. On the other hand, highland communities are increasingly risk prone as they have to struggle with climate change, land fragmentation and increased pest pressure. The aim of this sub-session is to highlight the importance and threats of contemporary family farming in the high Andes and its contribution to landrace conservation in light of global change. Diff erent dimensions will be discussed, including spatial, genetic, social and benefi t sharing components.
On-farm conservation of cultivated potato diversity
Dr. Karl Zimmerer
Penn State University, USA
Population genetics of farmer-managed potato genepools
Dr. Flor Rodriguez
Instituto Nacional de Innovación Agraria-INIA, Peru
A farmers perspective on benefit sharing and the role of the public and private sector
Asociación de Guardianes de la Papa Nativa del Centro de Peru, Peru
Chaqru, the peasants’ perspective on the management of native potatoes in the Andes
Dr. Ingrid Hall*
Montreal University, Canada
Sub-Session 2: In-situ Conservation of Cultivated Potato Diversity
The in-situ conservation of potato crop wild relatives remains an underattended component of regional conservation strategies. The conservation of the potato’s wild relatives is passive and little is known about the infl uence of land use and climate change on divergent evolution and population ecology. Active management in terms of monitoring, management and gap fi lling is still in its infancy. However, there is increased recognition of the need to establish observatories for active management. The aim of this sub-session is therefore to explore and elucidate options for research on and management off in-situ populations.
Conservation priorities, key research questions, policy gaps
Dr. Ximena Cadima
Ex-situ gap analysis for Solanum L. Section Petota and implications for in-situ conservation
Dr. Nora Castañeda*
Global Diversity Trust, Germany
Initiatives for the in-situ conservation of wild relatives of potatoes, within the framework of Peruvian legislation
MSc. Bertha Luz Alvarado Castro
Autoridad Nacional Forestal Y De Fauna Silvestre, SERFOR, Peru
Methodological proposal for the establishment of priority hotspots for the conservation of wild relatives of potatoes
Dr. Diego Sotomayor and Dra. Cinthya Zorrilla Cisneros
Instituto Nacional de Innovación Agraria-INIA, Peru
E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com
|Workshop Session K: Value Chain for Small Farmers and Culinary Innovations
Chair: Andre Devaux – Latin American and the Caribbean (LAC) Regional Director | International Potato Center
Co-chair: Andrés Casas – Professor | Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina
Wednesday 30 May – 08:20 – 11:10 hrs
Ensuring food security in Peru, and more globally, requires actions to improve the productivity and to upgrade the food value chains. This workshop will inform and discuss the implications of rapidly evolving markets and evolving demand from consumers for agricultural products, the consequences for smallholders and the actions required from decision makers to support value chain development.
The first part will be dedicated to the potential of the gastronomic culture as an engine for national socio-economic progress by highlighting the value and special characteristics of native products to promote them through programs of a social nature. Chefs from the recognized restaurants, Central in Peru and Gustu in Bolivia, will share their experiences of culinary innovation and the social collaboration with rural families. The second part of the workshop will be dedicated to small-scale farmers access to market, first considering high-value market niches linked to organic certifi cation and the promotion of short staple food value chains. The second presentation will explore the limitations and opportunities of different value chain interventions, including native potatoes, that aim to address poverty through improved linkages between businesses and rural smallholders in Peru.
Through comments from specialists and a final discussion, a refl ection on the value chain approachto family farming in Peru and its relevance in other contexts will provide some lessons learned.
Sub section: Culinary innovation
Virgilio Martínez, Central Restaurant, Lima
Social Inclusion – The experience of MATER INICIATIVA
Product Innovation and relationship with small-holder providers
Sub section: Value chain development for small farmers
Strengthening the “weakest link”: strategies to promote a successful participation of small farmers in agricultural value chains
Strengthening smallholder access to local markets through agroecological action