The Potato Global Approach
Climate Change / Varietal Development & Biotechnology
Global Approach / Peru and its Biodiversity
Summary and Strategies for Moving the Potato Forward
|Plenary 1 theme: The Potato Global Approach
Chair: Romain Cools – CEO World Potato Congress Inc.
Monday, 28 May – 10.30 – 11.50 hrsPlenary 1.1 title: Global Food and Agricultural Issues trendsDavid Nowell
FAO Regional Office for Latin America and the Caribbean Agriculture Officer
This presentation will provide a global perspective of the potato as the fourth most important crop in the world based on Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) statistics. The potato, which is cultivated globally, originated in the Andes region and has since spread to all corners of the world as a staple or important crop and source of food. During this process, there has been a considerable narrowing of the germplasm utilized (over many years) in production, but a phenomenal concurrent increase in total and per area production. While being an important commercial crop in most major first world countries, it also remains a cornerstone for food security for many family farmers and less developed countries around the world. While FAO serves all countries in the world, much of its focus and efforts concentrate on assisting developing countries, and in particularly, family farmers to meet the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) within the context of food and agriculture. Within this context, there are a number of very important current challenges to current agricultural food systems. These food systems and countries need to adapt to these challenges in the short- to long-term. Lessons learnt and future considerations will be identified to help meet current challenges such as food security, climate change and sustainable production. Possible new opportunities and areas to be re-visited will also be highlighted. This information is provided to get participants to think of achievements, opportunities and challenges within the larger global perspective.
Plenary 1.2 title: The Role of Potato in Feeding the future
Barbara H. Wells
In the last decades, there has been a growing concern about the impacts of unequal economic development and population growth on global food security and the environment. Feeding nine billion people by the middle of the century means more food production. Meeting the rising demand for food, and ending hunger and food insecurity require substantial improvements to the global food system – one that provides livelihoods for farmers with greater resilience to climate change as well as nutritious products for consumers while, at the same time, keeping agriculture’s environmental footprint as low as possible. This challenge requires changes in agriculture production in terms of sustainable high yields, adaptation of cropping systems to climate change, genetic improvement of plant varieties, pest management and new farm practices.
This presentation highlights first, the importance of the potato as a food security crop especially in the developing world. The extraordinary adaptive range of the potato crop, combined with its relatively short maturity period and high nutritional value, has led to steady increases in potato consumption in developing countries contributing to responding to hunger and chronic malnutrition challenges. For the last 20 years, there has been a dramatic increase in potato production and demand especially in Asia and Africa. Second, it describes innovations based on potato science that can be a significant vehicle for targeting food security challenges as part of a broader set of research and development activities. New research approaches in potato productivity are needed to increase yields and contribute to more nutritious crops such as new breeding technologies, improved seed systems, more efficient crop management practices and post-harvest management methods, including storage and value chain efficiency to reduce food losses. Third, to achieve the strongest impact on food security, potato research and development needs to move towards food systems engineering, rather than focus explicitly on technology/solution development. Policies and investments that support agricultural productivity and expand risk management capacity will give potato farmers the best chance to meet future needs, while increasing their adaptability and resilience to foster food security.
|Plenary 2 theme: Climate Change /
Varietal Development & Biotechnology
Chair: John Griffin – Vice President World Potato Congress Inc.
Monday, 28 May – 11.50 – 13.10 hrs Plenary 2.1 title: Climate Change as a risk to potato production
University of Florence Researcher
Researcher at the Department of Agri-food Production and Environmental Sciences, is co-author of 37 papers on refereed international journals dealing with agrometeorology, crop modelling, climate change, eco-physiology (Scopus H-index = 12). He is lecturer of the courses “Land Evaluation” and “Climate Change and Ecosystems” at the University of Florence. He was involved in several international and national projects (AgMIP, MACSUR, SmartSOIL, CIRCE, ENSEMBLES). His main research activities are the assessment of climate change impacts on typical Mediterranean crops and the investigation of possible adaptation and mitigation strategies. He worked on coupling crop models with medium-term weather forecasts for precision agriculture. He is currently working on the identifi cation of adaptation strategies and related uncertainties for durum wheat in the Mediterranean by using multi-model ensembles and climate probabilistic projections. Further interests are the use of crop modelling for designing future climate resilient crops and incorporating the eff ects of pests and diseases.
Plenary 2.2 title: Future of Modern Biotechnology in Varietal Development
Potato, the world’s third most important food crop, is set to play a major role in ensuring global food security. Potato production is increasing rapidly in many regions of the world with significant levels of poverty, with roughly a third of production taking place in developing countries and over one billion people relying on potato as their staple diet. As a vegetatively propagated and highly heterozygous polyploid outbreeding species, the development of new potato varieties by conventional breeding is a challenging and slow process. The biological properties of potato have made it difficult to implement modern breeding methods, thus explaining the very slow rate of genetic gain in the crop. Moreover, marker assisted breeding, widely adopted in inbred crops, has been only slowly deployed in modern potato breeding schemes, despite extensive genetic analyses of key traits. Most important potato traits display continuous variation and are determined by several genes, making marker deployment more difficult than for monogenic traits. However, since the publication of the 48 Abstract Book WPC-ALAP 2018 potato genome sequence several years ago potato has benefited from the development of several resources, such as GWAS populations, dense SNP marker panels, exome capture, and other genomic tools. Dense genetic maps allied to use of the annotated genome render the identification of candidate genes for target traits relatively facile. More recently the ability to create diploid inbred lines and F1 hybrids has the potential to re-invent potato breeding, although significant challenges need to be overcome. Genetic modification as well as novel breeding technologies, such as CRISPR/CAS have been deployed in potato but have yet to be used widely in the development of novel varieties. Under the currently envisaged climate change scenarios, use of these and other technologies will have a vital role to play in improvement of this important crop.
|Plenary 3 theme: Global Approach / Peru and its Biodiversity
Chair: Juan Risi Carbone – Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation of Peru
Tuesday, 29 May – 08.40 – 10.00 hrs Plenary 3.1 title: Potato Technology and Economic World TrendsMaximo Torero
World Bank Executive Director
Potato is the most important tuber crop in the world. It is a major food crop that is grown in over 100 countries across the world. Moreover, potato’s market potential and its positive attributes, particularly its high nutritional value, explain why the global market for potato has grown. Global potato production has grown steadily from 267 million metric tons in 1990 to 373.83 million metric tons in 2016. In 2016, the global potato area harvested amounted to approximately 19.25 million hectares and has remained stable during the last decade showing increase in productivity. International potato trade has doubled in volume and risen almost fourfold in value since the mid-1980s. This growth is due to unprecedented international demand for processed products, particularly frozen and dehydrated potato products (the global frozen potato market was valued at $50,755 million in 2016 and is projected to reach $66. 597 million by 2023, at a growth rate of 3.9% since 2017) mainly because of the growth of quick service restaurants and their major demand for French fries. Despite this growth, developing countries have not been able to benefit in most cases from this trade expansion and are mostly net importers, mainly because the potato market has not received the attention it deserves from governments. This has resulted in a lack of established marketing channels, inadequate institutional support and infrastructure, and restrictive trade policies that are significant impediments to commercialization. This presentation will focus on assessing the potential for the potato market and highlight the major constrains faced by developing countries in increasing access to markets (local, regional and international) and in increasing value addition on the potato value chain. The presentation will focus on: (a) bottlenecks across the value chain, identifying the major causes and if they are driven by missing markets, markets failures, policy failures, lack of the proper technology, or because of insufficient infrastructure (for example the need for extremely low temperatures up to their freezing point to achieve preservation and protection of the food and the existing nutrients which seems to be one core element limiting market growth); and (b) the major constraints that have limited the export potential of potatoes, by looking into tariff (tariff scalation policies) and non-tariff constraints, such as for example how countries face considerable hurdles in the form of food health standards and technical regulations to access international markets. The latter is extremely important, because it has hampered the international trade of potatoes, and potato products – only around 6 percent of output is traded.
Plenary 3.2 title: Exploiting Potato Diversity for Food Security, Nutrition and Competitiveness of Smallscale farmers: Lessons from Peru
André Devaux(1) & Miguel Ordinola(2)
Farmers in the Peruvian highlands have traditionally grown thousands of different potato varieties, which have been selected over centuries for their adaptation, productivity, culinary and nutritional attributes. Until recently, research and development programs have promoted the adoption of improved potato varieties and external inputs. Over the last decade, together with government initiatives, the International Potato Center (CIP) has worked to enhance the use of native potato varieties, promoting their adaptation to local environments, capitalizing on their nutritional value, and developing new products to raise the image of locally grown produce and allow farmers to supply high-value markets and boost their incomes. CIP and partners have developed an approach that fosters innovation for inclusive value-chain development in Andean rural areas. This approach helps to link small scale farmers to new urban markets by taking advantage of potato biodiversity and tapping new market opportunities. This approach involves three types of innovation: 1. Commercial innovation: development of a new image for native potatoes, business models and market opportunities for small-scale farmers, which stimulate native potato consumption and raise farm-gate prices; 2. Institutional innovation: development of coherent policies to enhance potato visibility and consumption; and 3. Technological innovation: increasing productivity of the potato crop, in support of commercial development and food security. This value chain approach has also been replicated in the Andes and other parts of the world. It has also been combined with other approaches that address chronic malnutrition challenges facing rural populations, such as dietary deficiency of micro-elements – mainly iron and zinc. To this end, CIP has promoted innovation for sustainable agriculture intensification through the selection and use of native and improved potato varieties with higher contents of micronutrients as well as expanding dietary diversity. This presentation will provide an overview of the approaches developed, results at the level of households and the potato, lessons learned from these experiences integrating production, value-chain and nutritional approaches in Peru, and their potential value in other contexts.
|Plenary 4 theme: Summary and Strategies for Moving the Potato Forward
Chair: Marcelo Huarte – Former INTA
Tuesday, 29 May – 15.10 – 17.00 hrs Plenary 4.1 : Applying the Business Model of Social Entrepreneurship,
to Strengthen Potato Producer´s Organizations in Ecuador and PeruMSc. Lieve Van Elsen(1) / Mr. Leoncio Pichihua Quito(2)
(1)Regional Director TRIAS Andes
(2) Coopagros Director
Applying the Business Model of Social Entrepreneurship, to Strengthen Potato Producer´s Organizations in Ecuador and Peru. Trias is an international NGO which has been working for more than 50 years on economic development through fostering entrepreneurship in 14 countries in Africa, Latin America and Asia. We are rooted in Belgian business associations and farmers unions whose expertise we tap into for our strategies and operations. We connect and empower entrepreneurs. We work worldwide with more than 100 farmers’ organizations, cooperatives and business associations and reach out to more than 2 million family farmers and small-scale entrepreneurs. Inclusion of women and youth are at the core of our business. Trias South-America has developed an innovative Business Model of Social Entrepreneurship to strengthen producer organizations and cooperatives. This model contains two important pillars: organizational management and business management. The model promotes innovative processes and actions with the aim to achieve sustainable organizations from a social, economic and environmental point of view. The Business Model of Social Entrepreneurship has been applied in a number of organizations in the potato chain in Ecuador and Peru, including CONPAPA Chimborazo, AGROPAPA Tungurahua and COOPAGROS. The model consists of six building blocks: 1) Organizational Strengthening: capacity building and leadership, set-up of a cooperative organization model with clear role definition, management tools. 2) Quality production: certified seed potatoes, improved productivity, field promotors, and farmer field schools. 3) Services for farmers: technical assistance, microfinance, agro-inputs. 4) Marketing strategies: Market diversification, business plans, client relation management, 5) Added value to the potato chain: mechanization and processing (washing and packaging), production of native potato chips. 6) Relations – networking: partnerships with different stakeholders, including public and private sector alliances, expressing the voice of farmers. Important results we achieved: – Professionalization of 3 organizations and 1455 farmers with improved productivity (average production of 20Tn/Ha) – Increased offer to markets with better and fairer prices for the producers, by adding value: chuño, native potato chips, washed & packed potatoes – Successful sale of 850Tn/year potato, with turnover of $450.000/year for 2 organizations (Conpapa and Agropapa) – Better recognition of 3 organizations by local government – Improved negotiations and relations with private sector
Plenary 4.2 title: Value Chain Tool Box
In the last decades, there has been a growing concern about the impacts of unequal economic At the African Potato Association conference in Addis Ababa in 2016, workshops were held to discuss how the WPC could help strengthen the Potato value chain in East Africa. After the sessions, it was clear that partnerships between enterprises or entities that saw their CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility) to help those who seek some sort of assistance to improve their own lives or those of their communities through the potato value chain being improved. In some contexts, it is also seen as a way to alleviate poverty. This is particularly true in the remote mountain regions of the tropical world, where the poorest people live today.
A tool box was designed to address, in specific ways, the needs of individuals and communities.